NDIS: Another Psychological Unicorn

The Clinical Unicorn has invaded the NDIS – It’s a Two-Tiered System

From the Final Report document:

You can download the full report here.

It’s time for all the disenfranchised psychologists, and the clients of the NDIS who are about to be unnecessarily out of pocket to get fully behind what RAPS is very soon to offer all of you.  It’s also time to search your own value systems and ask, “Why are you still not fully engaged with us in the cause for equity for ALL”!

Importantly, do not leave it all to RAPS, do what you can yourselves.

Very soon now our new web site and community forum will be launched.  It’s vitally important that ALL psychologists and other stakeholders who agree with RAPS purposes join this united effort.

Update on Complaints about ACPA Submission

AHPRA will only investigate complaints involving individuals, they farm the complaint out to whichever organisation they decide should accept responsibility for it.  Please read this page.  These bodies are really already overloaded with complaints.  Oddly enough, although it’s very clear that the ACPA submission strongly violates AHPRA’s PsyBA Code of Ethics it appears as though they may not accept any responsibility for policing the code.  These bodies are more concerned about complaints from patients/clients regarding health professionals.

At this stage, and until we have further information, we strongly recommend that any complaints are made about the individual author of the submission and not about ACPA.  It is very likely that complaints about ACPA will be met with a ‘sorry we don’t investigate organisations’ response.

This may mean that the PsyBA Code of Ethics can only legally apply to individuals as organisations are a different form of legal entity and “cannot have feelings or opinions”.  Any Corporations lawyers out there who can enlighten us?

Still, we can hardly afford to do nothing.  We suggest you make the complaint to AHPRA about the individual and follow the process.  We will all learn from this so we can design a more informed intervention next time.

How to Complain about the ACPA Submission to SIRA

Firstly ….

This Blog is in the public domain.  One of the strengths of what the Clinicals are doing and have done is that they do it secretly, therefore there is no strong counter lobby.  So, we hear, after a decision has been made and implemented, that e.g. Centrelink require assessments for DSP’s only from Clinical Psychologists.  We are then in a much weaker position of having to convince government to reverse a decision, governments do not like to do that unless they can see substantial political gain.  We then must try to supply the political gain.  Please do not think that RAPS isn’t doing and hasn’t done something about the SIRA submission.

Secondly …

We believe that a volume of individual complaints is several orders of magnitude more effective than a “group” complaint.  Bureaucracies have very effective methods of dealing with ‘one off’ events but are not as well equipped at dealing with incoming individual volume.  RAPS would really like to encourage every individual to make a complaint about the ACPA submission.   It is an easy matter to look up the code of ethics and familiarise yourselves with the AHPRA complaints process. The PsyBA has adopted the APS Code of Ethics without change. You can download the code here.  The AHPRA complaints process is here.

We have had a quick look, there may be others, we have identified the following code violations, highlighted in black:

Now that you realise how far many of the clinicals are prepared to go with their strategies surely you realise just how transformed the current landscape has become and how much has to be turned around … and importantly “who must do this”.  If you wish to inform us that you have made a complaint about this ACPA submission we will maintain a register for our future purposes. Just shoot us an email here.

Please Note:

One of you posted; “Im also fairly certain that because Mr Paul Gertler’s name is on the report as the author we can lodge a complaint with AHPRA directly about the wording he uses and misconceptions he perpetuates.

This is true that you can make a complaint about the ‘apparent’ individual author.  However if you do this then ACPA may distance themselves from this person suggesting that the submission was by an individual and not scanctioned by them.  We suggest that you submit a complaint about the author and ALSO about ACPA as they have scanctioned the submission – it’s available in the public domain hosted directly on the ACPA web site here. It was originally found via a Google search.

One often encountered problem with the notion of a group complaint is the diffusion of responsibility inherent in the process, please read on …

RAPS has said the following many times and we repeat it here:

RAPS is a volunteer group, very dedicated, very hard working and very people and resource poor.  RAPS cannot, by themselves, do what is required for ALL psychologists and the public.  Often when we ask for volunteer efforts the response is disheartening to us.  We are certainly most grateful to all those who do put their hands up.  However, there are thousands of psychologists in Australia who need to put their hands up, that is the only way we will turn this situation around – via both amplified voice and amplified effort.  Please do not assume that someone else will do it for you as, although this is for all of you collectively, this is also for you individually.  Perhaps the only certainty RAPS can offer you is that if a large majority of psychologists in Australia negatively impacted by the current landscape do not become actively involved then we will “collectively” fail.

It is encouraging to hear your angry voices in response to the ACPA submission to SIRA.  However, the longer many of you leave the doing to others the easier it is for groups like ACPA to exercise their strategies and continue to debase the majority of Australian psychologists.

Very soon you will have the opportunity to congregate together and act together.  We don’t want to be saying to the next generation, “I’m sorry, I should have done something”.

Anyone who wants to volunteer and help out please email us. To make a donation go here.

Thank you all

The RAPS Team

A Reaction to the ACPA Submission to SIRA on WorkCover Fees

We recently read the Australian Clinical Psychology Association’s (ACPA) submission to the NSW State Insurance Regulatory Authority (SIRA) on WorkCover (Psychology and Counselling Fees) order 2018 that attempts to raise up “Clinical Psychology” at the expense of “General Psychology” and Psychology in General.

ACPA has embedded lies about all other psychologists in an important submission, in a transparent attempt to subliminally undermine the status of “general psychologists”.

It’s not the first time and you can bet your bottom dollar it won’t be the last time ACPA tries to malign anyone not eligible to be a member of ACPA due to the endorsement system.

The mixed feelings that resulted from this reading have increased our ambivalence about Australian Clinical Psychology.

On the one hand, it is deeply moving to see ACPA’s commitment to getting a fairer deal for psychologists working at the coal-face of the difficult and complex workers compensation sector; but on the other hand, it is sickening to see Clinical Psychologists once again turn against hardworking, intelligent and resourceful members of their own discipline of psychology.

The writers of the submission are at once impressive in their dedication to their own kind and in their tenacity of purpose in self-promotion and self-interest in their attempts to distort the truth and bamboozle with, glamour and subterfuge, the intelligence of the Work Cover insurance fee regulators, by attempting to make themselves look better and more valuable by means of denigrating their own psychology colleagues.

What a shame ACPA seems hellbent on climbing over all other psychologists to get to the top of the heap of clamberers for imagined and manufactured scarcities of funding.

A more collegiate approach would bring us all together in a much stronger unified front.  But this will never happen while ACPA keeps singing it’s tune of psychological superiority and attempts to bury all other psychologists in a cloak of second-rated-ness.

This just degrades psychology in general.

While it is true that the APS recommends $246 per session and SIRA only pays $183.60 and undervalues time spent on preparing reports and treatment plans, and that longer sessions should be allowed for PTSD and other complex sessions, there are also large chunks of deception and untruth placed semi-strategically in ACPA’s submission to SIRA.

This meanness is a real pity, because it not only denigrates, by association, the other valid points made in the submission, but it also degrades Clinical Psychology and Psychology in general to have such an implausible piece of writing submitted to a government authority, thinly disguised as serious social-science or health-administration on behalf of professional Psychologists.

Right from the outset, in the first paragraph of the submission, there is distortion of facts …

The most blatantly incorrect is:

“…general psychologists who have no accredited qualifications in professional or clinical psychology, and are less able to assess and treat those presenting for services under WorkCover.”

By way of explanation:

  1. Clinical psychology qualifications are not the only post-graduate professional psychology qualifications. There are many others.
  2. All psychologists in Australia are, by legal definition, registered to work as professional psychologists.
  3. The highest specialisation in psychology under AHPRA and PBA regulations is “Registered Psychologist” by a number of pathways all of which require a minimum of 6 years of intensive training for full registration and there are no legal specialisations acknowledged beyond that, only subspecialties and areas of special interest.
  4. In practice many psychologists practise clinical psychology very well and they don’t need to be endorsed as a clinical psychologist to practice professional clinical psychology.
  5. There is no scientific or other evidence provided in the submission to prove a generalisation that people with PBA endorsement as “clinical psychologist” practice clinical psychology any more effectively than non-endorsed clinical psychology practitioners with the highest specialisation of Registered Psychologist.

The next distortion of fact by ACPA to SIRA is found in the first complaint on the list in the submission stating:

“1: The gazette fee does not adequately differentiate between generalist and clinical psychologists.

 “Generalist psychologists are required only to hold an undergraduate degree in the science of psychology plus two years of supervised practice.”

 The undergraduate degree consists of three years plus one year of honours, graduate or post graduate, plus an intensive internship of two years in practical professional psychology which is a lot more than just ‘supervised practice’ making a total of 6 years intensive training. Furthermore, many so called ‘generalist psychologists’ hold one or more post-graduate, graduate or undergraduate degrees beyond their full psychology registration training of 6 years. The clinical psychology endorsement is held by some who have not done a masters; and for those who have a masters, the two years ‘registrar program’ is little more than compulsory supervision (not an internship), which all psychologists undergo to some extent these days.

Calling Clinical Psychologists’ requirement to be supervised for 2 years after graduating with MPsych Clinical, a “registrar program” appears to be an attempt to align with the medical model of credentialing in an attempt to appear more credible.

At this juncture it would be worth noting that the British Psychological Society’s Clinical Psychology Division have just brought out a paper1 in January outlining and endorsing a meta-framework for psychological work (Johnstone, L. & Boyle, M. (2018) that goes way beyond the attempts of ACPA use of biological reductionist medical models of categories of pathologies and points out the folly of trying to reduce complex psycho-social and emotional states to biological systems and categories alone, and instead advocates a much broader systemic, multifactorial approach as all psychologists should!

If only the ACPA and the APS would follow the BPA CPD’s lead and educate the public, other disciplines and sectors and medical sciences about the true contexts, aetiology and treatment of causes of psychological distress.

The ACPA submission also bemoans:

“…less qualified generalist psychologists being attracted to provide WorkCover services, and those with accredited qualification in clinical psychology not undertaking this complex work, for which they are trained.”

 Presumably because they want to be paid more. And it seems to be an oxymoron to say that generalist psychologists are doing the work that they are not really able to do.

Take note that ACPA submission makes a lot of noise about endorsed Clinical Psychologists having special training and abilities to undertake “complex work” then later says this about complexities with the WorkCover system:

 “Most experienced clinical psychologists do not take on injured workers because of these complexities. As such injured workers miss seeing higher quality clinical psychologists and as a result their recovery is set back. This could have an impact on their ability to return to work.”

Apart from the fact that there is no scientific or other evidence to prove endorsed ‘clinical psychologists’ get better outcomes than all other psychology clinicians, it really does read as though ACPA is trying to spin itself as superior and indispensable in any way it can, even if their own platform is full of internal inconsistencies and distortions to try to make themselves seem more capable of the complex interventions, yet reluctant to undertake them because they want more money.

At this point it is important to see the distinction between, a) ACPA – The Australian Clinical Psychology Association – a break away from the APS, and b) APAC – The Australian Psychology Accreditation Council – in their emphases of what makes a good psychologist good or a better Psychologist better.

ACPA the clinical psychology break-aways are still hooked on the ‘Inputs’ side of the equations, while APAC has finally woken up to the real importance of the ‘Outputs’ side of the equation and the importance of Outcomes and Competencies and ways of quantifying these so we can get on with being a profession fit for the 21st century in our care and treatment of complex human problems.

ACPA is really bogged down in obsessions with, “who had the most years at Uni?” and in what course, while APAC has seen the light and knows the truth that more and more university training does not make a psychologist superior in their abilities and outcomes.

Under point 6 of the ACPA submission to SIRA the catch word ‘complex’ appears again when ACPA states:

“The fee schedule specifies that if psychologists wish to charge different fees for a severe injury that this must be negotiated with insurer. In practice, it has been difficult for clinical psychologists, who are most able to serve complex populations, to obtain agreement of insurers to allow the setting of more appropriate rates.”

Once again, a self-spun assertion, building up the notion that, of all the fully registered Psychology Specialists in the Art and Science of Psychology only those endorsed as Clinical Psychologist can deal with anything complex and are ‘most able to serve the complex populations’.

The people who are most able to serve complex populations are generalists and multidisciplinary teams who have a broad range of skills and abilities.

Modern Clinical Psychology in Australia does not deal with complexity in systems or people very well at all, because it is reductionistic and satisfies itself with slapping labels on people and reducing their complex problems to medical categories in imitation of psychiatry.

Nevertheless, the preceding points notwithstanding, we thank ACPA for bringing it to the attention of the authorities that all psychologists are underpaid by WorkCover according to the APS rates.

Meanwhile, for the sake of Australian Psychology we urge ACPA to publicly apologise to all Psychologists in Australia for their remarks and to withdraw their submission to SIRA.

Also for the sake of the future of Psychology in Australia, we implore the APS to make a public statement condemning attempts by ACPA to degrade the professionalism of Australian Psychologists for their own gain.

And last but not least, if you are one of the very many honourable colleagues who is endorsed as a Clinical Psychologist, we advise you to give the ACPA breakaways a wide birth and exert whatever influence you can on reforming ACPA’s ways which are causing so much destruction to your subspecialty and the profession of psychology; because psychology is already starting to be overlooked by planners and funders, for more ostensibly sensible, disciplined and well-rounded professions like Occupational Therapy, Nursing, Social Work, Welfare workers, Community workers and the like.

If you are a clinical psychologist, for goodness sakes don’t support ACPA.

You can download the ACPA submission to SIRA here.


1Johnstone, L. & Boyle, M. with Cromby, J., Dillon, J., Harper, D., Kinderman, P., Longden, E., Pilgrim, D. & Read, J. (2018). The Power Threat Meaning Framework: Towards the identification of patterns in emotional distress, unusual experiences and troubled or troubling behaviour, as an alternative to functional psychiatric diagnosis. Leicester: British Psychological Society


Call for Donations

The structures RAPS is setting up and will be maintaining, plus existing structures we continue to maintain require an amount of ongoing funding. As a volunteer group we are always cash strapped and we do rely on donations from supporters to keep the cause functioning. We wish that RAPS had the resources of the APS, we would use them to hire people, buy/rent needed resources etc so that we could offer all RAPS supporters an excellent campaign base. Instead we do the best we can with what we have available to us, at least we have learned to be highly efficient and to stretch resources as far as they can go.

Currently, though, it’s timely for us to ask all of you again to contribute what you can to help us continue and uplift us with your positive contributions. We will be asking for more helpers again, quite soon. Right now we are asking for donations. We are paying for the new web site, it isn’t cheap. There is also hosting and an SSL certificate plus installation. Ongoing MailChimp accounts, hosting for this current Blog and costs for other structures we are setting up which we cannot reveal just yet but which you will all become aware of shortly. So please support us so we may continue our work for ALL psychologists. Currently you can donate here …. and we certainly do need you to! The new web site will have donate via PayPal buttons to make the process largely automatic.

What Happens When ‘You’ Talk With Colleagues?

Discussion with colleague:

“Have you read the latest issues about the Primary Health Network limiting work to Clinical Psychologists?”

Reply: “No I haven’t read the RAPS website, I’m too busy to read the blog, and to read the emails from RAPS”.

Totally agreed. Most non-clinical psychologists are very busy. Non-clinical psychologists need to work 30% harder than Clinical psychologists just to earn a similar income.

However, non-clinical psychologists who are very busy may not be within 12-18 months.

The South Eastern Melbourne Primary Health Network stated clearly:

Mental Health Integrated Complex Care (MHICC) services offer support for consumers with severe mental illness and complex needs who require coordination of their care over an extended period of time. MHICC services are highly flexible to match people’s individual needs, and can include:

  • clinical nursing services
  • family support and liaison
  • care co-ordination and liaison (clinical and non-clinical)
  • improved access to psychiatrist & psychological care.

MHICC services can be delivered by mental health nurses, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and eligible mental health workers, social workers and occupational therapists.

The Australian Clinical Psychologists Association has put in a submission to WorkCover to get higher fees for WorkCover work than non-clinical psychologists.

And as the ACPA continues to lobby for Clinical Psychologists to do psychology work at the expense of all other psychologists, explicitly stating they are better trained than all other psychologists, before too long there will be a push for only Clinical psychologists to do WorkCover work.

As stated previously by Clinical Psychologists (as highlighted elsewhere in this RAPS blog) ‘Australia has the worst trained psychologists in the Western World’.

And as ACPA have good connections  (with RANZCP, and supported by the APS by default, for not looking after the interests of non-clinical psychologists, or acting in their interests) their pushes for clinical psychologists ahead of all psychologists, are unfortunately listened to more than non-clinical psychologists.

So the currently very busy psychologists who are too busy to be involved and read the blogs and get involved or support RAPS may not be too busy within 12-18 months.

Especially as only clinical psychologists will get work from the Health Networks (and ATAPS is being terminated by 2018) & non-clinical psychologists may very well lose WorkCover and other government agency work (as has already happened with Centrelink).

Whilst there are many complaints that RAPS is not doing much currently, and DGPP Board member Gagliano seems very quiet, and has just drunk from the cup of APS, don’t be fooled or hoodwinked by the well-worn APS concept of divide and conquer. Every registered psychologist MUST get involved to be vigilant, and protect the interests, income and professionalism of a large majority of registered psychologists in Australia, and to be able to provide the professional psychology treatment delivered to Australians for 50 years – even before the 2 tiered Medicare rebate came along.

There are many things needed to be done – especially writing to Ministers (Health in particular), and politicians in general.

Please keep informed and get involved – because if non-clinical psychologists are not careful, we will ALL have TOO much time on our hands – because we’ll have so much less work.


2018 is a crucial year, we don’t have much time left to turn this situation around. We have a united purpose but we need a united action from the overwhelming majority of Australian generalist psychologists. RAPS has been doing a huge amount of work behind the scenes, you will all know that soon. However, if you sit back and leave it to RAPS generalist psychologists will fade into the history books. RAPS can write submissions and lobby for generalist psychologists and that has some small effect in the overall situation. The main thing RAPS can do, and is doing, is to provide processes and systems by which all generalist psychologists can unite and act together … that has a huge effect on the overall situation but only if you do it. You will all have this opportunity when the new web site and community forum is launched. Please do this for all our colleagues!

Discussion Paper – The Looming Loss of Diversity Within Psychology in Australia

This Discussion Paper was received anonymously by RAPS. However on receiving it we recognized that it could contribute to the important debate of which RAPS seeks to be a part. We are pleased to know that others in the psychology profession are recognizing the serious issues of concern for us all in the profession. Hence our desire to offer this Discussion paper to the wider profession through RAPS.

When you read this paper what will be immediately obvious is the respectful and considered tone of the language, which is in no way meant to diminish the urgency of its dire warning: the imminent demise of the diversity in the psychology profession in Australia.

The purpose of the paper was written to generate discussion among relevant stakeholders, and those concerned with the future of psychology and mental health in Australia.

It presents a comprehensive and excellent summation of the multiplicity of adverse consequences of the existing system on diversity in the psychology profession. The summation includes an historical perspective of the existing system, including the two-tier MBS (Better Access) initiative.

In particular, the paper puts forward what this means for the Australian community in being able to respond and manage mental health concerns.

We encourage all Psychologists to read it and alert your colleagues to start a discussion in turning this around!

You can download the discussion paper -> here.

Important Article from the British Psychological Society

RAPS have received, anonymously, an article from The British Psychological Society, Division of Clinical Psychology.  This important article expresses many of our concerns about the practice of Psychology in Australia.

The Power Threat Meaning Framework – ‘Towards the identification of patterns in emotional distress, unusual experiences and troubled or troubling behaviour, as an alternative to functional psychiatric diagnosis’.

We suggest to every psychologist in Australia to download this important paper and read it closely.

Call for Volunteers and Training Reminder


Expect to see quite a few of these in the coming months.  We are still very busy behind the scenes setting up structures etc.  We need someone to write a draft letter and send it to us for final editing.  We will give you relevant documentation you can refer to so, in a sense, it’s more of a covering letter.  We want to use it as a submission, this submission is important for all generalists and we don’t have time ourselves.

If you have submission/writing skills then you would be ideal to help us for what we have in mind.  Sorry can’t reveal actual details here.  Please email us and we will send you further details.  Hopefully we will receive quite a few email responses.  In that case, please don’t be offended if you aren’t sent the task, we will probably select three people.  We will, however, keep you in our database of ‘future helpers’.

Thank you in anticipation

The RAPS Team



We have twice posted about the training by Dan Brown.  The Early Bird rate has been extended in appreciation of RAPS support.  You now have until the Friday 9th February to register at the early bird rate.

A Repost About Training Supported by RAPS

This was originally posted on 2nd December 2017.  As the workshops are occurring in 2018 we are posting this again as a reminder.

RAPS supports diversity in psychology, including training.  We will, as such training opportunities become available, inform you about them.

The following information is about two workshops that RAPS believes are valid, effective, and provide very useful additions to clinical practice for all psychologists working therapeutically.  We are pleased to be able to support these workshops and urge all interested parties to read  the information below and follow the links to make your own decisions.

Gold Standard Evidence Based Treatments for Anxiety Disorders &
 Psychometric Measures for Clinical Practice

After the success of last year’s CCRT training and 2015’s Attachment Disorder treatment training with Dan P. Brown Phd. we have been able to secure him for another year.

 We are happy to announce that RAPS are assisting to promote Dan Brown’s workshops for 2018.
The workshops offered are part of a series of trainings Dan has delivered for over a decade to the Harvard Medical school and to a group of private clinicians he supervises in New York City.

 This training will help the speed and efficiency of your case conceptualisation and treatment planning and will also provide you with clear understanding of diagnostic tools and treatment approaches for third party reporting.

 Dan’s approach is detail focused and will translate into your increased confidence and clarity in diagnoses and treatment planning.

 Please note this is a non-for-profit training with any funds being forwarded to Dan’s charity work in Tibet.
If you have any queries about the workshops, please drop me a line.

Kind Regards,

Nigel Denning


Workshop 1 – Psychometric measures for Clinical practice

The training offered this year feature Dan’s presentation of gold standard diagnostic tools for clinicians both self-report questionnaires (day 1) and diagnostic interview tools (day 2).

Tickets available

Follow the event on facebook

Workshop 2 – Evidence based treatment for Anxiety Disorders

A second workshop being offered explores best practice treatment for the various DSMV anxiety disorders and reviews best practice treatment approaches for each.  The training includes case studies and clinical vignettes to enhance the pedagogic experience.

Tickets Available

Follow the event on facebook

December Update From the RAPS Team

RAPS Update

You haven’t heard a lot from us recently. This is because we are still very busy setting up structures, writing documents, planning etc. The work, at this stage, seems endless.

Our new web site is scheduled to be launched at the end of February. We will migrate our existing blog to the new site but it will be organised in a more user friendly way. The rest of the site will present ‘the issues’ in a way that is easy to navigate and understand for all visitors. The site will also have a supporters and visitors resource section. This section will feature some smart processes that e.g. make it very easy for visitors to send letters to stakeholders – just a few clicks.

We have opened a Twitter account. When you receive this post as an email via MailChimp you will notice a Twitter button near the top of the email and in the footer. Also in the footer are Facebook and Twitter share buttons. If you have a Facebook or Twitter account, we encourage you to share and retweet our posts. This is one way that we can collectively channel our voices and significantly increase their presence via social media. Our new Twitter account doesn’t have any followers yet, we also encourage you to follow us.

Our new logo is finished, you can view it on our Twitter account. The logo will also feature at the top of MailChimp subscriber emails.

There have been calls here for people to use their real names when posting on the blog. We will still allow people to post using pseudo names on the new site, however they will not be allowed to supply a pseudo email address to post. Email addresses supplied by all posters will be verified by software and if invalid the post will not be allowed.

When we launch our new web site we plan to also launch an online community. The community will reside in a directory below the web site. We will be able to congregate, share and communicate with each other in this community. Here we will be able to get to know each other and contribute in far more meaningful ways than what this current blog allows.

One of our large tasks in 2018 will be to obtain more contact details for psychologists who either know nothing of RAPS or who have only encountered the skewed view of RAPS supplied to them by the APS. We are still quite short on helpers and we will be asking for more of you to become involved.

We are considering registering RAPS as a legal entity; this is just one more involved task that is currently occupying us.

We do need more donations we will continue to ask you to help with the cost of this large endeavour and we are grateful to everyone who has already donated and indeed some who donate on a regular basis.

You may expect to hear more calls for help from us during 2018. We need more of you to offer some of your valuable time to offset the huge workload that just a few of us have accepted. If you can do this you will ensure the success of RAPS in 2018. Some of the work that was given to helpers in 2017 was too much for them and became a discouragement. In 2018 we plan to give you shorter more time targeted tasks. Additionally, if you have your own ideas of how to help, we would love to hear from you.

To everyone here and to all our supporters across Australia we want to extend our heartfelt thanks for your efforts and your support. We wish you, and your families, a rewarding and enjoyable 2018. Together we will make 2018 a most interesting year for the voice conduit known as RAPS.

Thank you

The RAPS Team.